The history of New South Wales and Australia once seemed interchangeable. But since at least the 1850s New South Wales has had a unique history, partly growing out of its origins as a convict colony at Port Jackson, and largely shaped by natural resources that produce a wealth and a home for an ever increasing population. This book documents that history, offering readers a concise chronicle of events from the first fleet to the present day. It also looks at the major challenges that have faced the state in recent times and will take it into the future and how to maintain a balance between the growth of Sydney and the needs of its huge hinterland. This book provides a unique outline and introduction to the history of New South Wales, since the beginning of white settlement, for all readers.