There has been recent emergence of some of the most exciting avenues for innovation in clinical medicine, with materials as their core - sustained drug delivery systems, gene therapy, regenerative therapies, and technologies for imaging and tumor targeting. Nanotechnology promises to take materials innovation to yet another level, through ground-up design of probes and systems that precisely deliver information to cells and tissues on demand. Combined with microfabrication technologies, these breakthroughs have the potential to revolutionize the detection and treatment of diseases and rectification of damaged tissue. Examples include lab-on-a-chip, pharmacy-on-a-chip and synthetic liver substitutes. This book features a cross-section of topics at the multifaceted intersection of materials science and medicine. Topics include: materials in regenerative medicine; macromolecular drug/lipid interaction; (nano)materials in drug delivery; hydrogels and material-tissue interactions; and synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials for biomedical applications.