The forty-fourth volume of Anglo-Saxon England contains three contributions on religious culture in eighth-century Northumbria, one discussing the conception of church buildings, one linking Bede and John of Beverley, and a comparison of Miracula Nynie episcopi and Arator. A discussion of the historical context of the battle of the Winwœd is complemented by a reconsideration of a literary work which influenced modern perceptions of King Edward the Confessor. Old English prose is represented by an analysis of the preface of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, and an examination of 'lfric's treatment of the apostles. Old English poetry is covered by a contribution making the case for a new approach to the texts, and one addressing the riddles in the Exeter Book. This volume also covers military organization throughout the period, the practice of penance in the late eleventh century, and the discovery of an Anglo-Saxon hoard near Buckingham in 2014.