Biotechnology will undoubtedly be the major technology of the twenty-first century. It concerns the practical application of biological organisms or their various components to the benefit of humankind, and spans a multitude of modern and traditional industries. The rise of genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics and the creation of transgenic crops and animals has revolutionised activities as varied as brewing beer, the treatment of sewage and wastewater, to drug development and agriculture. In this expanded fourth edition of his popular textbook, John Smith once again demystifies biotechnology, and especially genetic manipulation, clearly and accessibly explaining the history, techniques, and applications of modern biotechnology for students and the general reader. All aspects of biotechnology are covered and a positive stance is taken concerning the potential benefits to human society. In this edition, greater emphasis is given to the public perception of biotechnology and the ethical and safety questions raised.