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Ethics

Ethics

ISBN 9780192892454
Edition 1st
Publisher Oxford Paperbacks
Author(s)
Publication Date
Overview
Introduction PART I: THE NATURE OF ETHICS: ITS ORIGINS, VARIATIONS, AND BASIS A. The Long Search for the Origins of Ethics Introduction 1. Morality as the Advantage of the Stranger: A Debate between Socrates and Thrasymachus , Plato 2. Moral Virtue, How Produced , Aristotle 3. Are Humans Good by Nature? A Debate between Chinese Sages , Mencius 4. Of the Natural Condition of Mankind and the Laws of Nature , Thomas Hobbes 5. The Natural State of Man , Jean-Jacques Rousseau 6. Affection of Humanity: The Foundation of Morals , David Hume 7. The Noble Descent of Duty , Immanuel Kant 8. The Material Basis of Morality , Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 9. The Origin of the Moral Sense , Charles Darwin 10. The Origins of Herd Morality , Friedrich Nietzsche 11. The Cultural Super-Ego , Sigmund Freud 12. In a Different Voice , Carol Gilligan B. Common Themes in Primate Ethics Introduction I. Kinship 13. Helping Kin in Chimpanzees , Jane Goodall 14. A Universal Duty , Edward Westermarck 15. The Genetic Basis of Kinship , David Barash II. Reciprocity 16. Chimpanzee Justice , Frans De Waal 17. Live and Let Live , Tony Ashworth 18. Reciprocal Gift-Giving among the !Kung , Lorna Marshall 19. The Kula Ring , Bruno Malinowski 20. A Single Word , Confucius 21. The Law of Hammurabi 22. Turn the Other Cheek , Jesus 23. The Whole Torah, while Standing on One Foot , Hillel 24. The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism , Robert Trivers 25. Tit for Tat , Robert Axelrod III. Sexual Morality 26. Incest Avoidance among Chimpanzees , Jane Goodall 27. The Horror of Incest , Edward Westermarck 28. The Social Rules of Chimpanzee Sex , Frans De Waal 29. Adultery among the !Kung , Lorna Marshall 30. Incest and Adultery , The Bible 31. A Commentary on the Sixth Commandment , Martin Luther 32. The Double Standard , Donald Symons C. The Role of Reason Introduction 33. Reason and Passion , David Hume 34. Pure Practical Reason and the Moral Law , Immanuel Kant 35. Addin Ethical Substance to Kant's Empty Formalism , G.W.F. Hegel 36. The Axioms of Ethics , Henry Sidgwick 37. Society the School, Custom the Headmaster , Edward Westermarck 38. A Lecture on Ethics , Ludwig Wittgenstein 39. Ethics for Logical Positivists , A.J. Ayer 40. Condemned to Be Free , Jean-Paul Sartre 41. The Objective Basis of Morality , Thomas Nagel 42. The Argument from Queerness , J.L. Mackie 43. Evolution and the Basis of Morality , Colin McGinn 44. Reason, Gender and Moral Theory , Virginia Held 45. Realism , Michael Smith PART II: THE CONTENT OF ETHICS: JUDGING GOOD OUTCOMES AND RIGHT ACTS A. Ultimate Good Introduction 46. The Ceasing of Woe , The Buddha 47. The End for Human Nature , Aristotle 48. The Pursuit of Pleasure , Epicurus 49. A Stoic View of Life , Epictetus 50. The Sermon on the Mount , Jesus 51. The Saints of the Desert , W. B. H. Lecky 52. Story of a Good Brahmin , Voltaire 53. Push-Pin and Poetry , Jeremy Bentham 54. Higher and Lower Pleasures , John Stuart Mill 55. Good as the Satisfaction of Demands , William James 56. Desirable Consciousness , Henry Sidgwick 57. Beauty and Friendship , G. E. Moore 58. Truth and Ahimsa , M. K. Gandhi 59. The Right to Be Unhappy , Aldous Huxley 60. The Myth of Sisyphus , Albert Camus 61. The Experience Machine , Robert Nozick 62. The Basic Values , John Pinnis 63. What Makes Someone's Life Go Best? , Derek Parfit B. Deciding What Is Right Introduction I. Natural Law, Natural Rights |c. a. The Theory 64. Of the Natural Law , Aquinas 65. Our Rights in the State of Nature , John Locke 66. Declaration On Euthanasia , The Vatican 67. Absolute Human Rights , John Finnis 68. The Rationality of Side Constraints , Robert Nozick 69. Moral Aspects of Sterility Tests , Gerald Kelly b. Criticism 70. Provincial Letters , Pascal 71. Natural Rights , Jeremy Bentham 72. On Nature , John Stuart Mill II. Kant's Ethics of Duty a. The Theory 73. The Categorical Imperative , Immanuel Kant 74. On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives , Immanuel Kant b. Criticism 75. Maria von Herbert's Challenge to Kant , Rae Langton 76. The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn , Jonathan Bennett III. Consequentialism a. The Theory 77. The Principle of Utility , Jeremy Bentham 78. The Archbishop and the Chambermaid , William Godwin 79. Issues for Utilitarians , Henry Sidgwick 80. Desert Island Promises , J. J. C. Smart 81. The Structure of Ethics and Morals , R. M. Hare b. Criticism 82. Ivan's Challenge , Fyodor Dostoevsky 83. The Personal Character of Duty , W. D. Ross 84. The Separateness of Persons , John Rawls 85. Jim and the Indians , Bernard Williams 86. Moral Saints , Susan Wolf IV. Contract Ethics a. The Theory 87. The Separateness of Persons , John Rawls 88. Why Contractarianism? , David Gauthier b. Criticism 89. Duties concerning Islands , Mary Midgley Epilogue 90. How Both Human History and the History of Ethics May be Just Beginning , Derek Parfit Select Bibliography Biographical Notes Index

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