OverviewThe link between the structure of the interstellar medium in galaxies and the star formation process is a fast-growing area of astrophysical research. The availability of wide-field far-infrared and submillimeter surveys with various space observatories, coupled with the improved capabilities of ground-based millimeter and submillimeter interferometers, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of star formation modes from solar system scales to galaxy scales. IAU Symposium 315 aims to build a coherent picture of how star formation is fueled on a wide range of scales. Bringing together researchers working on star formation throughout the Universe from nearby clouds to local galaxies to the first star-forming galaxies at high redshift, it makes connections between the latest observations and advanced numerical simulations. It also addresses critical issues, such as the origin and universality of the stellar initial mass function, the nature of star formation 'laws', and the role of feedback.