This research publication is a collaboration of key experts from around the globe representing nations with existing legal frameworks and nations in the midst of developing such regimes for the protection of Indigenous knowledge and culture. The publication presents recent important international research in the field of Indigenous Knowledge and legal frameworks for its protection developed from the discourse at the second Indigenous Knowledge Forum held at the University of Technology Sydney in 2014. The forum facilitated dialogue, discussion and an information exchange, bringing together government officials, decision makers, scholars, and especially Indigenous and local peoples' representatives. The forum highlighted concerns in Benefit Sharing and Prior Informed Consent by Indigenous peoples who hold traditional knowledge, and questioned the Common Heritage of Humanity concept which acts as a barrier to Indigenous management and control of Traditional Knowledge. Chapters discuss Indigenous and traditional knowledge protection in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Costa Rica, China, India, Peru, Thailand, Samoa and African nations.