Designed for students training to become biostatisticians as well as practicing biostatisticians, Inference Principles for Biostatisticians presents the theoretical and conceptual foundations of biostatistics. It covers the theoretical underpinnings essential to understanding subsequent core methodologies in the field. Drawing on his extensive experience teaching graduate-level biostatistics courses and working in the pharmaceutical industry, the author explains the main principles of statistical inference with many examples and exercises. Extended examples illustrate key concepts in depth using a specific biostatistical context. In addition, the author uses simulation to reinforce the repeated sampling interpretation of numerous statistical concepts. Reducing the computational complexities, he provides simple R functions for conducting simulation studies. This text gives graduate students with diverse backgrounds across the health, medical, social, and mathematical sciences a solid, unified foundation in the principles of statistical inference. This groundwork will lead students to develop a thorough understanding of biostatistical methodology.