In the nearly four decades since the First International Symposium on Victimology convened in Jerusalem in 1973, some concepts and themes have continued to hold a prominent place in the literature, while new ones have also emerged. Exploring enduring topics such as conceptions of victimhood, secondary and hidden victimization, and social services for victims along with more recent issues, the International Handbook of Victimology provides an interdisciplinary study of the topic from a diverse range of professionals on the cutting edge of victimology research. Forty experts from top research facilities and universities around the world provide input on the traditional longstanding issues that surround the field of victimology and explore newer themes such as restorative justice, the use of government-sponsored crime victimization surveys, compensation and restitution schemes, and victims' rights legislation. The second in a trilogy of volumes, this handbook examines victimology from criminology, sociology, psychology, law, and philosophy perspectives. Topics discussed include: * Theoretical and historical frameworks used in the study of victimology * Advances in research methods, including GIS technology * Patterns of victimization, including drug- sex-, and work-related * Responses to victimization by the victim and society * Restorative justice issues * Victimization as it occurs in various social divisions Describing current research and identifying new ideas and topics of concern, the book collectively presents the "state-of-the-art" of the field today. In doing so, it helps to inform contemporary understanding of an eternal societal plague. Those wishing to continue their studies should consult the International Handbook of Criminology and the International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice, which complete the trilogy.