For undergraduate level courses in Motivation. This experimentally-oriented text provides a critical examination of research and theory with a topical approach. It covers a broad range of motivational concepts from both human and animal theory and research, with an emphasis on the biological bases of motivation. New - Extensive revisions within chapter on emotion (Ch. 2). Incorporates recent research on theories and analyses of cognition and emotion. - Helps students to understand the complex relationship between emotion and motivation. New - In-depth discussion of evolutionary concepts. Includes the role of genetics in relation to emotion/motivation. - Provides students with a better understanding of biological backgrounds. New - Systematic presentation of theories - Details the presentation of the two-process learning theory and Langs Affective Modulation Theory. - Helps students to relate theory and motivation. New - Coverage on preattentive processes (unconscious processes) in chapters on emotion (Ch. 2), fear learning (Ch. 8), and anxiety. - Introduces students to new concepts within the study of motivation. New- In-depth discussions of cognitive processes in relation to anxiety and the development of aggression. - Familiarizes students with the effects of anxiety on processing. New - Chapter on personality and motivation. Includes material on sensation-seeking and cognitive complexity in relation to personality and motivation. - Introduces students to an entirely different area of personality theory. New - Adds coverage on Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency. Now includes Attitudes and Learning as well as Biology of Attitudes. - Exposes students to additional topics within the field of motivation and cognition. New - Adds new material on evolutionary approaches to interpersonal attraction. - Introduces students to additional concepts to help further their base of knowledge. Presents an historical perspective. While maintaining its relevancy with new material. - Familiarizes students with older concepts and their strengths and weaknesses, which may correlate with new concepts.