Overview1. PARTS OF SPEECH. Nouns. Pronouns. Verbs. Adjectives. Adverbs. Prepositions. Conjunctions. Interjections. Chapter Review. 2. SUBJECTS AND VERBS. Subjects. Nouns. Pronouns. Compound Subjects. Implied Subjects. Trouble Spots. Verbs. Types of Verbs. Verb Phrases. Compound Verbs. Verbals. Location of Subjects and Verbs. Chapter Review. 3. KINDS OF SENTENCES. Clauses. Independent Clauses. Dependent Clauses. Relative Clauses. Trouble Spot: Phrases. Types of Sentences. Simple Sentences. Compound Sentences. Complex Sentences. Compound-Complex Sentences. Chapter Review. 4. COMBINING SENTENCES, AVOIDING OMISSIONS, ACHIEVING SENTENCE VARIETY. Coordination: The Compound Sentence. Punctuation with Coordinating Conjunctions. Semicolons and Conjunctive Adverbs. Punctuation with Semicolons and Conjunctive Adverbs. Subordination: The Complex Sentence. Punctuation with Subordinating Conjunctions. Punctuation with Relative Pronouns. Coordination and Subordination: The Compound-Complex Sentence. Punctuation of Complicated Compound or Compound-Complex Sentences. Other Ways to Combine Ideas. Omissions: When Parts Are Missing. Variety in Sentences: Types, Order, Length, Beginnings. Types. Order. Length. Beginnings. Chapter Review. 5. CORRECTING FRAGMENTS, COMMA SPLICES, AND RUN-ONS. Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Subordinating Conjunctions. Dependent Clauses as Fragments: Clauses with Relative Pronouns. Phrases as Fragments. Fragments as Word Groups Without Subjects or Without Verbs. Acceptable Fragments. Comma Splices and Run-Ons. Correcting Comma Splices and Run-Ons. Chapter Review. 6. BALANCING SENTENCE PARTS. Basic Principles of Parallelism. Signal Words. Combination Signal Words. Chapter Review. 7. VERBS. Regular and Irregular Verbs. Regular Verbs. Irregular Verbs. 'Problem' Verbs. The Twelve Verb Tenses at a Glance. Simple Tenses. Perfect Tenses. Progressive Tenses. Perfect Progressive Tenses. Subject-Verb Agreement. Consistency in Tense. Active and Passive Voice. Strong Verbs. Chapter Review. 8. PRONOUNS. Pronoun Case. Subjective Case. Objective Case. Techniques for Determining Case. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement. Agreement in Person. Agreement in Number. Agreement in Gender. Pronoun Reference. Chapter Review. 9. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. Selecting Adjectives and Adverbs. Comparative and Superlative Forms. Adjectives. Adverbs. Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers. Chapter Review. 10. PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALIZATION. End Punctuation. Periods. Question Marks. Exclamation Points. Commas. Commas to Separate. Commas to Set Off. Semicolons. Quotation Marks. Punctuation with Quotation Marks. Italics. Dashes. Colons. Parentheses. Brackets. Apostrophes. Hyphens. Capitalization. Chapter Review. 11. SPELLING AND COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS. Spelling Tips. Frequently Misspelled Words. Confused Spelling/Confusing Words. Wordy Phrases. 12. THE WRITING PROCESS: PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS. The Paragraph and Essay Defined. The Writing Process. Prewriting. Writing a First Draft. Revising and Editing. The Writing Process Worksheet. 13. WRITING A SUMMARY. 14. COMBINED AND SPECIFIC PATTERNS OF WRITING AND WRITING TOPICS. Combined Patterns of Writing. Specific Patterns of Writing. Descriptive Narration. Exemplification. Analysis by Division. Process Analysis. Cause and Effect. Classification. Comparison and Contrast. Definition. Argument. A Variety of Writing Topics. Index.