This book is a textbook for upper undergraduate and graduate courses. It also acts a reference for a broad spectrum of individuals with different levels of exercise science and human physiology backgrounds who will be working with older adults to improve quality of life. It blends the science of exercise physiology with the ageing process, an undeniable and irreversible biological phenomenon, identifies the positive effects that regular exercise and physical activity have, not only on longevity, but also on delaying specific diseases, decreasing morbidity and increasing the quality of life. It outlines the theories on ageing, the ageing, process, the structural and functional changes that characterise advancing age and the exercise programming concerns for the aged, as well as the benefits of exercise and physical activity.The book is divided into three parts. Part I outlines the major physiological systems, age-related changes and the role of physical activity on specific systems. Part II outlines the interactive roles of nutrition; age-related diseases, such as diabetes and osteoporosis and physical activity. Part III outlines the physiologic adaptability that may be expected with training and physical activity.