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Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 15e Loose-Leaf Print Companion WileyPlus

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 15e Loose-Leaf Print Companion WileyPlus

ISBN 9781119287759
Edition 15
Publication Date
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Author(s)
Overview

1 An Introduction to the Human Body 1

1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined 2

1.2 Levels of Structural Organization and Body Systems 2

1.3 Characteristics of the Living Human Organism 5

1.4 Homeostasis 8

1.5 Basic Anatomical Terminology 13

1.6 Aging and Homeostasis 21

1.7 Medical Imaging 22

Chapter Review 25 / Critical Thinking Questions 27 / Answers to Figure Questions 27

2 The Chemical Level of Organization 28

2.1 How Matter Is Organized 29

2.2 Chemical Bonds 32

2.3 Chemical Reactions 36

2.4 Inorganic Compounds and Solutions 39

2.5 Overview of Organic Compounds 43

2.6 Carbohydrates 44

2.7 Lipids 46

2.8 Proteins 49

2.9 Nucleic Acids 54

2.10 Adenosine Triphosphate 56

Chapter Review 57 / Critical Thinking Questions 59 / Answers to Figure Questions 59

3 The Cellular Level of Organization 60

3.1 Parts of a Cell 61

3.2 The Plasma Membrane 62

3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 65

3.4 Cytoplasm 74

3.5 Nucleus 85

3.6 Protein Synthesis 88

3.7 Cell Division 92

3.8 Cellular Diversity 99

3.9 Aging and Cells 99

Chapter Review 102 / Critical Thinking Questions 104 / Answers to Figure Questions 105

4 The Tissue Level of Organization 106

4.1 Types of Tissues 107

4.2 Cell Junctions 108

4.3 Comparison between Epithelial and Connective Tissues 109

4.4 Epithelial Tissue 110

4.5 Connective Tissue 122

4.6 Membranes 133

4.7 Muscular Tissue 135

4.8 Nervous Tissue 137

4.9 Excitable Cells 138

4.10 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 138

4.11 Aging and Tissues 139

Chapter Review 141 / Critical Thinking Questions 142 / Answers to Figure Questions 143

5 The Integumentary System 144

5.1 Structure of the Skin 145

5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 152

5.3 Types of Skin 158

5.4 Functions of the Skin 158

5.5 Maintaining Homeostasis: Skin Wound Healing 160

5.6 Development of the Integumentary System 161

5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System 163

Chapter Review 169 / Critical Thinking Questions 170 /Answers to Figure Questions 170

6 The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue 171

6.1 Functions of Bone and the SkeletalSystem 172

6.2 Structure of Bone 172

6.3 Histology of Bone Tissue 174

6.4 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone 177

6.5 Bone Formation 178

6.6 Fracture and Repair of Bone 185

6.7 Bone’s Role in Calcium Homeostasis 188

6.8 Exercise and Bone Tissue 189

6.9 Aging and Bone Tissue 189

Chapter Review 192 / Critical Thinking Questions 193 / Answers to Figure Questions 193

7 The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton 194

7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System 195

7.2 Types of Bones 197

7.3 Bone Surface Markings 197

7.4 Skull: An Overview 198

7.5 Cranial Bones 199

7.6 Facial Bones 208

7.7 Special Features of the Skull 210

7.8 Hyoid Bone 215

7.9 Vertebral Column 215

7.10 Vertebral Regions 218

7.11 Thorax 225

Chapter Review 231 / Critical Thinking Questions 232 / Answers to Figure Questions 232

8 The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton 234

8.1 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 235

8.2 Upper Limb (Extremity) 238

8.3 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 243

8.4 False and True Pelves 245

8.5 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves 247

8.6 Lower Limb (Extremity) 247

8.7 Development of the Skeletal System 255

Chapter Review 259

9 Joints 260

9.1 Joint Classifications 261

9.2 Fibrous Joints 261

9.3 Cartilaginous Joints 263

9.4 Synovial Joints 264

9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 266

9.6 Types of Synovial Joints 271

9.7 Factors Aff ecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints 274

9.8 Selected Joints of the Body 274

9.9 Temporomandibular Joint 277

9.10 Shoulder Joint 278

9.11 Elbow Joint 281

9.12 Hip Joint 282

9.13 Knee Joint 284

9.14 Aging and Joints 287

9.15 Arthroplasty 287

Chapter Review 291 / Critical Thinking Questions 292 / Answers to Figure Questions 292

10 Muscular Tissue 293

10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 294

10.2 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 295

10.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 304

10.4 Muscle Metabolism 312

10.5 Control of Muscle Tension 315

10.6 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 318

10.7 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 319

10.8 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 321

10.9 Smooth Muscle Tissue 321

10.10 Regeneration of Muscular Tissue 323

10.11 Development of Muscle 325

10.12 Aging and Muscular Tissue 325

Chapter Review 327 / Critical Thinking Questions 329 / Answers to Figure Questions 329

11 The Muscular System 330

11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements 331

11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named 335

11.3 Overview of the Principal Skeletal Muscles 335

11.4 Muscles of the Head That Produce Facial Expressions 339

11.5 Muscles of the Head That Move the Eyeballs (Extrinsic Eye Muscles) and Upper Eyelids 342

11.6 Muscles That Move the Mandible and Assist in Mastication and Speech 344

11.7 Muscles of the Head That Move the Tongue and Assist in Mastication and Speech 345

11.8 Muscles of the Anterior Neck That Assist in Deglutition and Speech 347

11.9 Muscles of the Neck That Move the Head 349

11.10 Muscles of the Abdomen That Protect Abdominal Viscera and Move the Vertebral Column 351

11.11 Muscles of the Thorax That Assist in Breathing 354

11.12 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor That Support the Pelvic Viscera and Function as Sphincters 357

11.13 Muscles of the Perineum 358

11.14 Muscles of the Thorax That Move the Pectoral Girdle 360

11.15 Muscles of the Thorax and Shoulder That Move the Humerus 363

11.16 Muscles of the Arm That Move the Radius and Ulna 366

11.17 Muscles of the Forearm That Move the Wrist, Hand, Thumb, and Digits 370

11.18 Muscles of the Palm That Move the Digits—Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand 375

11.19 Muscles of the Neck and Back That Move the Vertebral Column 379

11.20 Muscles of the Gluteal Region That Move the Femur 383

11.21 Muscles of the Thigh That Move the Femur, Tibia, and Fibula 389

11.22 Muscles of the Leg That Move the Foot and Toes 391

11.23 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot That Move the Toes 396

Chapter Review 401 / Critical Thinking Questions 402 / Answers to Figure Questions 402

12 Nervous Tissue 403

12.1 Overview of the Nervous System 404

12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 406

12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons: An Overview 414

12.4 Resting Membrane Potential 418

12.5 Graded Potentials 420

12.6 Action Potentials 422

12.7 Signal Transmission at Synapses 428

12.8 Neurotransmitters 435

12.9 Neural Circuits 438

12.10 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue 440

Chapter Review 442 / Critical Thinking Questions 444 / Answers to Figure Questions 444

13 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 446

13.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy 447

13.2 Spinal Nerves 453

13.3 Cervical Plexus 456

13.4 Brachial Plexus 458

13.5 Lumbar Plexus 461

13.6 Sacral and Coccygeal Plexuses 463

13.7 Spinal Cord Physiology 465

Chapter Review 475 / Critical Thinking Questions 476 / Answers to Figure Questions 476

14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 477

14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply 478

14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid 481

14.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation 486

14.4 The Cerebellum 491

14.5 The Diencephalon 493

14.6 The Cerebrum 496

14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 501

14.8 Cranial Nerves: An Overview 506

14.9 Olfactory (I) Nerve 507

14.10 Optic (II) Nerve 508

14.11 Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves 509

14.12 Trigeminal (V) Nerve 511

14.13 Facial (VII) Nerve 512

14.14 Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve 513

14.15 Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve 514

14.16 Vagus (X) Nerve 515

14.17 Accessory (XI) Nerve 516

14.18 Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve 517

14.19 Development of the Nervous System 519

14.20 Aging and the Nervous System 521

Chapter Review 523 / Critical Thinking Questions 525 / Answers to Figure Questions 525

15 The Autonomic Nervous System 526

15.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 527

15.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways 529

15.3 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors 537

15.4 Physiology of the ANS 540

15.5 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions 543

Chapter Review 546 / Critical Thinking Questions 546 / Answers to Figure Questions 547

16 Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems 548

16.1 Sensation 549

16.2 Somatic Sensations 552

16.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways 557

16.4 Control of Body Movement 562

16.5 Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum 569

Chapter Review 574 / Critical Thinking Questions 575 / Answers to Figure Questions 575

17 The Special Senses 576

17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 577

17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 580

17.3 Vision: An Overview 584

17.4 Accessory Structures of the Eye 584

17.5 Anatomy of the Eyeball 587

17.6 Physiology of Vision 592

17.7 Hearing 601

17.8 Equilibrium 610

17.9 Development of the Eyes and Ears 615

17.10 Aging and the Special Senses 617

Chapter Review 619 / Critical Thinking Questions 620 / Answers to Figure Questions 620

18 The Endocrine System 622

18.1 Comparison of Control by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 623

18.2 Endocrine Glands 623

18.3 Hormone Activity 624

18.4 Mechanisms of Hormone Action 626

18.5 Control of Hormone Secretion 629

18.6 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 630

18.7 Thyroid Gland 639

18.8 Parathyroid Glands 643

18.9 Adrenal Glands 646

18.10 Pancreatic Islets 650

18.11 Ovaries and Testes 654

18.12 Pineal Gland and Thymus 654

18.13 Other Endocrine Tissues and Organs, Eicosanoids, and Growth Factors 655

18.14 The Stress Response 656

18.15 Development of the Endocrine System 658

18.16 Aging and the Endocrine System 660

Chapter Review 665 / Critical Thinking Questions 667 / Answers to Figure Questions 667

19 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 668

19.1 Functions and Properties of Blood 669

19.2 Formation of Blood Cells 672

19.3 Red Blood Cells 674

19.4 White Blood Cells 678

19.5 Platelets 681

19.6 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow andCord Blood 683

19.7 Hemostasis 683

19.8 Blood Groups and Blood Types 687

Chapter Review 693 / Critical Thinking Questions 694 /Answers to Figure Questions 694

20 The Cardiovascular System:The Heart 695

20.1 Anatomy of the Heart 696

20.2 Heart Valves and Circulation of Blood 703

20.3 Cardiac Muscle Tissue and the Cardiac ConductionSystem 709

20.4 The Cardiac Cycle 717

20.5 Cardiac Output 719

20.6 Exercise and the Heart 723

20.7 Help for Failing Hearts 724

20.8 Development of the Heart 726

Chapter Review 734 / Critical Thinking Questions 735 /Answers to Figure Questions 736

21 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics 737

21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels 738

21.2 Capillary Exchange 746

21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Aff ecting BloodFlow 749

21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow 752

21.5 Checking Circulation 756

21.6 Shock and Homeostasis 758

21.7 Circulatory Routes: Systemic Circulation 760

21.8 The Aorta and Its Branches 762

21.9 Ascending Aorta 765

21.10 The Arch of the Aorta 766

21.11 Thoracic Aorta 770

21.12 Abdominal Aorta 773

21.13 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 778

21.14 Veins of the Systemic Circulation 781

21.15 Veins of the Head and Neck 783

21.16 Veins of the Upper Limbs 785

21.17 Veins of the Thorax 789

21.18 Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis 791

21.19 Veins of the Lower Limbs 793

21.20 Circulatory Routes: The Hepatic PortalCirculation 796

21.21 Circulatory Routes: The PulmonaryCirculation 797

21.22 Circulatory Routes: The FetalCirculation 798

21.23 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood 801

21.24 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 802

Chapter Review 805 / Critical Thinking Questions 807 /Answers to Figure Questions 807

22 The Lymphatic Systemand Immunity 808

22.1 The Concept of Immunity 809

22.2 Overview of the Lymphatic System 809

22.3 Lymphatic Vessels and LymphCirculation 809

22.4 Lymphatic Organs and Tissues 814

22.5 Development of Lymphatic Tissues 819

22.6 Innate Immunity 820

22.7 Adaptive Immunity 825

22.8 Cell-Mediated Immunity 830

22.9 Antibody-Mediated Immunity 834

22.10 Self-Recognition and Self-Tolerance 839

22.11 Stress and Immunity 841

22.12 Aging and the ImmuneSystem 841

Chapter Review 846 / Critical Thinking Questions 848 /Answers to Figure Questions 848

23 The Respiratory System 850

23.1 Overview of the Respiratory System 851

23.2 The Upper Respiratory System 853

23.3 The Lower Respiratory System 856

23.4 Pulmonary Ventilation 869

23.5 Lung Volumes and Capacities 874

23.6 Exchange of Oxygen and CarbonDioxide 875

23.7 Transport of Oxygen and CarbonDioxide 878

23.8 Control of Breathing 884

23.9 Exercise and the RespiratorySystem 888

23.10 Development of the Respiratory System 889

23.11 Aging and the Respiratory System 890

Chapter Review 895 / Critical Thinking Questions 896 / Answers to Figure Questions 896

24 The Digestive System 898

24.1 Overview of the Digestive System 899

24.2 Layers of the GI Tract 900

24.3 Neural Innervation of the GI Tract 902

24.4 Peritoneum 903

24.5 Mouth 905

24.6 Pharynx 911

24.7 Esophagus 912

24.8 Deglutition 913

24.9 Stomach 914

24.10 Pancreas 920

24.11 Liver and Gallbladder 922

24.12 Small Intestine 927

24.13 Large Intestine 937

24.14 Phases of Digestion 943

24.15 Development of the DigestiveSystem 945

24.16 Aging and the Digestive System 945

Chapter Review 949 / Critical Thinking Questions 951 /Answers to Figure Questions 952

25 Metabolism and Nutrition 953

25.1 Metabolic Reactions 954

25.2 Energy Transfer 955

25.3 Carbohydrate Metabolism 956

25.4 Lipid Metabolism 966

25.5 Protein Metabolism 969

25.6 Key Molecules at Metabolic Crossroads 971

25.7 Metabolic Adaptations 972

25.8 Energy Balance 977

25.9 Regulation of Body Temperature 980

25.10 Nutrition 983

Chapter Review 990 / Critical Thinking Questions 991 / Answers to Figure Questions 992

26 The Urinary System 993

26.1 Overview of the Urinary System 994

26.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys 995

26.3 The Nephron 999

26.4 Overview of Renal Physiology 1005

26.5 Glomerular Filtration 1006

26.6 Tubular Reabsorption and TubularSecretion 1010

26.7 Production of Dilute and ConcentratedUrine 1018

26.8 Evaluation of Kidney Function 1022

26.9 Urine Transportation, Storage, andElimination 1024

26.10 Waste Management in Other Body Systems 1028

26.11 Development of the Urinary System 1028

26.12 Aging and the Urinary System 1030

Chapter Review 1033 / Critical Thinking Questions 1035 /Answers to Figure Questions 1035

27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 1036

27.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis 1037

27.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 1042

27.3 Acid–Base Balance 1046

27.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 1051

Chapter Review 1052 / Critical Thinking Questions 1053 / Answers to Figure Questions 1054

28 The Reproductive Systems 1055

28.1 Male Reproductive System 1056

28.2 Female Reproductive System 1070

28.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 1086

28.4 The Human Sexual Response 1091

28.5 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 1092

28.6 Development of the Reproductive Systems 1095

28.7 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 1097

Chapter Review 1103 / Critical Thinking Questions 1105 / Answers to Figure Questions 1105

29 Development and Inheritance 1107

29.1 Overview of Development 1108

29.2 The First Two Weeks of the EmbryonicPeriod 1108

29.3 The Remaining Weeks of the EmbryonicPeriod 1115

29.4 Fetal Period 1124

29.5 Teratogens 1126

29.6 Prenatal Diagnostic Tests 1127

29.7 Maternal Changes during Pregnancy 1129

29.8 Exercise and Pregnancy 1132

29.9 Labor 1132

29.10 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth 1134

29.11 The Physiology of Lactation 1135

29.12 Inheritance 1136

Chapter Review 1144 / Critical Thinking Questions 1145 / Answers to Figure Questions 1145

APPENDIX A Measurements A-1

APPENDIX B Periodic Table B-3

APPENDIX C Normal Values for Selected Blood Tests C-4

GLOSSARY / INDEX

Overview

1 An Introduction to the Human Body 1

1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined 2

1.2 Levels of Structural Organization and Body Systems 2

1.3 Characteristics of the Living Human Organism 5

1.4 Homeostasis 8

1.5 Basic Anatomical Terminology 13

1.6 Aging and Homeostasis 21

1.7 Medical Imaging 22

Chapter Review 25 / Critical Thinking Questions 27 / Answers to Figure Questions 27

2 The Chemical Level of Organization 28

2.1 How Matter Is Organized 29

2.2 Chemical Bonds 32

2.3 Chemical Reactions 36

2.4 Inorganic Compounds and Solutions 39

2.5 Overview of Organic Compounds 43

2.6 Carbohydrates 44

2.7 Lipids 46

2.8 Proteins 49

2.9 Nucleic Acids 54

2.10 Adenosine Triphosphate 56

Chapter Review 57 / Critical Thinking Questions 59 / Answers to Figure Questions 59

3 The Cellular Level of Organization 60

3.1 Parts of a Cell 61

3.2 The Plasma Membrane 62

3.3 Transport across the Plasma Membrane 65

3.4 Cytoplasm 74

3.5 Nucleus 85

3.6 Protein Synthesis 88

3.7 Cell Division 92

3.8 Cellular Diversity 99

3.9 Aging and Cells 99

Chapter Review 102 / Critical Thinking Questions 104 / Answers to Figure Questions 105

4 The Tissue Level of Organization 106

4.1 Types of Tissues 107

4.2 Cell Junctions 108

4.3 Comparison between Epithelial and Connective Tissues 109

4.4 Epithelial Tissue 110

4.5 Connective Tissue 122

4.6 Membranes 133

4.7 Muscular Tissue 135

4.8 Nervous Tissue 137

4.9 Excitable Cells 138

4.10 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 138

4.11 Aging and Tissues 139

Chapter Review 141 / Critical Thinking Questions 142 / Answers to Figure Questions 143

5 The Integumentary System 144

5.1 Structure of the Skin 145

5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 152

5.3 Types of Skin 158

5.4 Functions of the Skin 158

5.5 Maintaining Homeostasis: Skin Wound Healing 160

5.6 Development of the Integumentary System 161

5.7 Aging and the Integumentary System 163

Chapter Review 169 / Critical Thinking Questions 170 /Answers to Figure Questions 170

6 The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue 171

6.1 Functions of Bone and the SkeletalSystem 172

6.2 Structure of Bone 172

6.3 Histology of Bone Tissue 174

6.4 Blood and Nerve Supply of Bone 177

6.5 Bone Formation 178

6.6 Fracture and Repair of Bone 185

6.7 Bone’s Role in Calcium Homeostasis 188

6.8 Exercise and Bone Tissue 189

6.9 Aging and Bone Tissue 189

Chapter Review 192 / Critical Thinking Questions 193 / Answers to Figure Questions 193

7 The Skeletal System: The Axial Skeleton 194

7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System 195

7.2 Types of Bones 197

7.3 Bone Surface Markings 197

7.4 Skull: An Overview 198

7.5 Cranial Bones 199

7.6 Facial Bones 208

7.7 Special Features of the Skull 210

7.8 Hyoid Bone 215

7.9 Vertebral Column 215

7.10 Vertebral Regions 218

7.11 Thorax 225

Chapter Review 231 / Critical Thinking Questions 232 / Answers to Figure Questions 232

8 The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton 234

8.1 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 235

8.2 Upper Limb (Extremity) 238

8.3 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 243

8.4 False and True Pelves 245

8.5 Comparison of Female and Male Pelves 247

8.6 Lower Limb (Extremity) 247

8.7 Development of the Skeletal System 255

Chapter Review 259

9 Joints 260

9.1 Joint Classifications 261

9.2 Fibrous Joints 261

9.3 Cartilaginous Joints 263

9.4 Synovial Joints 264

9.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 266

9.6 Types of Synovial Joints 271

9.7 Factors Aff ecting Contact and Range of Motion at Synovial Joints 274

9.8 Selected Joints of the Body 274

9.9 Temporomandibular Joint 277

9.10 Shoulder Joint 278

9.11 Elbow Joint 281

9.12 Hip Joint 282

9.13 Knee Joint 284

9.14 Aging and Joints 287

9.15 Arthroplasty 287

Chapter Review 291 / Critical Thinking Questions 292 / Answers to Figure Questions 292

10 Muscular Tissue 293

10.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 294

10.2 Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 295

10.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 304

10.4 Muscle Metabolism 312

10.5 Control of Muscle Tension 315

10.6 Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers 318

10.7 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 319

10.8 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 321

10.9 Smooth Muscle Tissue 321

10.10 Regeneration of Muscular Tissue 323

10.11 Development of Muscle 325

10.12 Aging and Muscular Tissue 325

Chapter Review 327 / Critical Thinking Questions 329 / Answers to Figure Questions 329

11 The Muscular System 330

11.1 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements 331

11.2 How Skeletal Muscles Are Named 335

11.3 Overview of the Principal Skeletal Muscles 335

11.4 Muscles of the Head That Produce Facial Expressions 339

11.5 Muscles of the Head That Move the Eyeballs (Extrinsic Eye Muscles) and Upper Eyelids 342

11.6 Muscles That Move the Mandible and Assist in Mastication and Speech 344

11.7 Muscles of the Head That Move the Tongue and Assist in Mastication and Speech 345

11.8 Muscles of the Anterior Neck That Assist in Deglutition and Speech 347

11.9 Muscles of the Neck That Move the Head 349

11.10 Muscles of the Abdomen That Protect Abdominal Viscera and Move the Vertebral Column 351

11.11 Muscles of the Thorax That Assist in Breathing 354

11.12 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor That Support the Pelvic Viscera and Function as Sphincters 357

11.13 Muscles of the Perineum 358

11.14 Muscles of the Thorax That Move the Pectoral Girdle 360

11.15 Muscles of the Thorax and Shoulder That Move the Humerus 363

11.16 Muscles of the Arm That Move the Radius and Ulna 366

11.17 Muscles of the Forearm That Move the Wrist, Hand, Thumb, and Digits 370

11.18 Muscles of the Palm That Move the Digits—Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand 375

11.19 Muscles of the Neck and Back That Move the Vertebral Column 379

11.20 Muscles of the Gluteal Region That Move the Femur 383

11.21 Muscles of the Thigh That Move the Femur, Tibia, and Fibula 389

11.22 Muscles of the Leg That Move the Foot and Toes 391

11.23 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot That Move the Toes 396

Chapter Review 401 / Critical Thinking Questions 402 / Answers to Figure Questions 402

12 Nervous Tissue 403

12.1 Overview of the Nervous System 404

12.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 406

12.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons: An Overview 414

12.4 Resting Membrane Potential 418

12.5 Graded Potentials 420

12.6 Action Potentials 422

12.7 Signal Transmission at Synapses 428

12.8 Neurotransmitters 435

12.9 Neural Circuits 438

12.10 Regeneration and Repair of Nervous Tissue 440

Chapter Review 442 / Critical Thinking Questions 444 / Answers to Figure Questions 444

13 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 446

13.1 Spinal Cord Anatomy 447

13.2 Spinal Nerves 453

13.3 Cervical Plexus 456

13.4 Brachial Plexus 458

13.5 Lumbar Plexus 461

13.6 Sacral and Coccygeal Plexuses 463

13.7 Spinal Cord Physiology 465

Chapter Review 475 / Critical Thinking Questions 476 / Answers to Figure Questions 476

14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves 477

14.1 Brain Organization, Protection, and Blood Supply 478

14.2 Cerebrospinal Fluid 481

14.3 The Brainstem and Reticular Formation 486

14.4 The Cerebellum 491

14.5 The Diencephalon 493

14.6 The Cerebrum 496

14.7 Functional Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 501

14.8 Cranial Nerves: An Overview 506

14.9 Olfactory (I) Nerve 507

14.10 Optic (II) Nerve 508

14.11 Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV), and Abducens (VI) Nerves 509

14.12 Trigeminal (V) Nerve 511

14.13 Facial (VII) Nerve 512

14.14 Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Nerve 513

14.15 Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve 514

14.16 Vagus (X) Nerve 515

14.17 Accessory (XI) Nerve 516

14.18 Hypoglossal (XII) Nerve 517

14.19 Development of the Nervous System 519

14.20 Aging and the Nervous System 521

Chapter Review 523 / Critical Thinking Questions 525 / Answers to Figure Questions 525

15 The Autonomic Nervous System 526

15.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 527

15.2 Anatomy of Autonomic Motor Pathways 529

15.3 ANS Neurotransmitters and Receptors 537

15.4 Physiology of the ANS 540

15.5 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions 543

Chapter Review 546 / Critical Thinking Questions 546 / Answers to Figure Questions 547

16 Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems 548

16.1 Sensation 549

16.2 Somatic Sensations 552

16.3 Somatic Sensory Pathways 557

16.4 Control of Body Movement 562

16.5 Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum 569

Chapter Review 574 / Critical Thinking Questions 575 / Answers to Figure Questions 575

17 The Special Senses 576

17.1 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 577

17.2 Gustation: Sense of Taste 580

17.3 Vision: An Overview 584

17.4 Accessory Structures of the Eye 584

17.5 Anatomy of the Eyeball 587

17.6 Physiology of Vision 592

17.7 Hearing 601

17.8 Equilibrium 610

17.9 Development of the Eyes and Ears 615

17.10 Aging and the Special Senses 617

Chapter Review 619 / Critical Thinking Questions 620 / Answers to Figure Questions 620

18 The Endocrine System 622

18.1 Comparison of Control by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 623

18.2 Endocrine Glands 623

18.3 Hormone Activity 624

18.4 Mechanisms of Hormone Action 626

18.5 Control of Hormone Secretion 629

18.6 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 630

18.7 Thyroid Gland 639

18.8 Parathyroid Glands 643

18.9 Adrenal Glands 646

18.10 Pancreatic Islets 650

18.11 Ovaries and Testes 654

18.12 Pineal Gland and Thymus 654

18.13 Other Endocrine Tissues and Organs, Eicosanoids, and Growth Factors 655

18.14 The Stress Response 656

18.15 Development of the Endocrine System 658

18.16 Aging and the Endocrine System 660

Chapter Review 665 / Critical Thinking Questions 667 / Answers to Figure Questions 667

19 The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 668

19.1 Functions and Properties of Blood 669

19.2 Formation of Blood Cells 672

19.3 Red Blood Cells 674

19.4 White Blood Cells 678

19.5 Platelets 681

19.6 Stem Cell Transplants from Bone Marrow andCord Blood 683

19.7 Hemostasis 683

19.8 Blood Groups and Blood Types 687

Chapter Review 693 / Critical Thinking Questions 694 /Answers to Figure Questions 694

20 The Cardiovascular System:The Heart 695

20.1 Anatomy of the Heart 696

20.2 Heart Valves and Circulation of Blood 703

20.3 Cardiac Muscle Tissue and the Cardiac ConductionSystem 709

20.4 The Cardiac Cycle 717

20.5 Cardiac Output 719

20.6 Exercise and the Heart 723

20.7 Help for Failing Hearts 724

20.8 Development of the Heart 726

Chapter Review 734 / Critical Thinking Questions 735 /Answers to Figure Questions 736

21 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics 737

21.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels 738

21.2 Capillary Exchange 746

21.3 Hemodynamics: Factors Aff ecting BloodFlow 749

21.4 Control of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow 752

21.5 Checking Circulation 756

21.6 Shock and Homeostasis 758

21.7 Circulatory Routes: Systemic Circulation 760

21.8 The Aorta and Its Branches 762

21.9 Ascending Aorta 765

21.10 The Arch of the Aorta 766

21.11 Thoracic Aorta 770

21.12 Abdominal Aorta 773

21.13 Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs 778

21.14 Veins of the Systemic Circulation 781

21.15 Veins of the Head and Neck 783

21.16 Veins of the Upper Limbs 785

21.17 Veins of the Thorax 789

21.18 Veins of the Abdomen and Pelvis 791

21.19 Veins of the Lower Limbs 793

21.20 Circulatory Routes: The Hepatic PortalCirculation 796

21.21 Circulatory Routes: The PulmonaryCirculation 797

21.22 Circulatory Routes: The FetalCirculation 798

21.23 Development of Blood Vessels and Blood 801

21.24 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 802

Chapter Review 805 / Critical Thinking Questions 807 /Answers to Figure Questions 807

22 The Lymphatic Systemand Immunity 808

22.1 The Concept of Immunity 809

22.2 Overview of the Lymphatic System 809

22.3 Lymphatic Vessels and LymphCirculation 809

22.4 Lymphatic Organs and Tissues 814

22.5 Development of Lymphatic Tissues 819

22.6 Innate Immunity 820

22.7 Adaptive Immunity 825

22.8 Cell-Mediated Immunity 830

22.9 Antibody-Mediated Immunity 834

22.10 Self-Recognition and Self-Tolerance 839

22.11 Stress and Immunity 841

22.12 Aging and the ImmuneSystem 841

Chapter Review 846 / Critical Thinking Questions 848 /Answers to Figure Questions 848

23 The Respiratory System 850

23.1 Overview of the Respiratory System 851

23.2 The Upper Respiratory System 853

23.3 The Lower Respiratory System 856

23.4 Pulmonary Ventilation 869

23.5 Lung Volumes and Capacities 874

23.6 Exchange of Oxygen and CarbonDioxide 875

23.7 Transport of Oxygen and CarbonDioxide 878

23.8 Control of Breathing 884

23.9 Exercise and the RespiratorySystem 888

23.10 Development of the Respiratory System 889

23.11 Aging and the Respiratory System 890

Chapter Review 895 / Critical Thinking Questions 896 / Answers to Figure Questions 896

24 The Digestive System 898

24.1 Overview of the Digestive System 899

24.2 Layers of the GI Tract 900

24.3 Neural Innervation of the GI Tract 902

24.4 Peritoneum 903

24.5 Mouth 905

24.6 Pharynx 911

24.7 Esophagus 912

24.8 Deglutition 913

24.9 Stomach 914

24.10 Pancreas 920

24.11 Liver and Gallbladder 922

24.12 Small Intestine 927

24.13 Large Intestine 937

24.14 Phases of Digestion 943

24.15 Development of the DigestiveSystem 945

24.16 Aging and the Digestive System 945

Chapter Review 949 / Critical Thinking Questions 951 /Answers to Figure Questions 952

25 Metabolism and Nutrition 953

25.1 Metabolic Reactions 954

25.2 Energy Transfer 955

25.3 Carbohydrate Metabolism 956

25.4 Lipid Metabolism 966

25.5 Protein Metabolism 969

25.6 Key Molecules at Metabolic Crossroads 971

25.7 Metabolic Adaptations 972

25.8 Energy Balance 977

25.9 Regulation of Body Temperature 980

25.10 Nutrition 983

Chapter Review 990 / Critical Thinking Questions 991 / Answers to Figure Questions 992

26 The Urinary System 993

26.1 Overview of the Urinary System 994

26.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys 995

26.3 The Nephron 999

26.4 Overview of Renal Physiology 1005

26.5 Glomerular Filtration 1006

26.6 Tubular Reabsorption and TubularSecretion 1010

26.7 Production of Dilute and ConcentratedUrine 1018

26.8 Evaluation of Kidney Function 1022

26.9 Urine Transportation, Storage, andElimination 1024

26.10 Waste Management in Other Body Systems 1028

26.11 Development of the Urinary System 1028

26.12 Aging and the Urinary System 1030

Chapter Review 1033 / Critical Thinking Questions 1035 /Answers to Figure Questions 1035

27 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 1036

27.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Homeostasis 1037

27.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 1042

27.3 Acid–Base Balance 1046

27.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Homeostasis 1051

Chapter Review 1052 / Critical Thinking Questions 1053 / Answers to Figure Questions 1054

28 The Reproductive Systems 1055

28.1 Male Reproductive System 1056

28.2 Female Reproductive System 1070

28.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 1086

28.4 The Human Sexual Response 1091

28.5 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 1092

28.6 Development of the Reproductive Systems 1095

28.7 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 1097

Chapter Review 1103 / Critical Thinking Questions 1105 / Answers to Figure Questions 1105

29 Development and Inheritance 1107

29.1 Overview of Development 1108

29.2 The First Two Weeks of the EmbryonicPeriod 1108

29.3 The Remaining Weeks of the EmbryonicPeriod 1115

29.4 Fetal Period 1124

29.5 Teratogens 1126

29.6 Prenatal Diagnostic Tests 1127

29.7 Maternal Changes during Pregnancy 1129

29.8 Exercise and Pregnancy 1132

29.9 Labor 1132

29.10 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth 1134

29.11 The Physiology of Lactation 1135

29.12 Inheritance 1136

Chapter Review 1144 / Critical Thinking Questions 1145 / Answers to Figure Questions 1145

APPENDIX A Measurements A-1

APPENDIX B Periodic Table B-3

APPENDIX C Normal Values for Selected Blood Tests C-4

GLOSSARY / INDEX

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