Rather than simply describing the processes and reactions involved in metal extraction, this book concentrates on fundamental principles to give readers an understanding of the possibilities for future developments in this field. It includes a review of the basics of thermodynamics, kinetics and engineering principles that have special importance for extractive metallurgy, to ensure that readers have the background necessary for maximum achievement. The various metallurgical unit processes (such as roasting, reduction, smelting and electrolysis) are illustrated by existing techniques for the extraction of the most common metals. Each chapter includes a bibliography of recommended reading, to aid in further study. The appendices include tables and graphs of thermodynamic qualities for most substances of metallurgical importance; these are ideal for calculating heat (enthalpy) balances and chemical equilibrium constants. SI Units are used consistently throughout the text.