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Science · Chemistry
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3. (a) Consider the Balmer-a optical transition in a hydrogen atom, between the n 3 and the m-2 Bohr levels. The splitting of the Balmer-a optical transition is caused by the fine- structure splitting (spin-orbit interaction) and the Lamb shifts of the Bohr levels. ) For bothn 2 andn 3 list all possible values of I and j and briefly motivate how (ii) What are the selection rules for the optical transitions? (ii) Draw an energy level diagram showing all n 3 and n 2 energy levels with you obtained these (2 marks) mar different values of l and j, clearly labelled, and all optical transitions between them. 2 marks) The fine-structure splitting of the Balmer-a transition can be resolved with saturated absorption spectroscopy, in which two counter-propagating laser beams are directed through a sample of hydrogen atoms. Briefly describe this method and explain why Doppler broadening is eliminated in this method. (b) 5 marks) Given: The fine-structure splitting of the energy levels of the hydrogen atom is described by the formula (ER 13.6 eV and a-1/137) The Lamb shift splits levels with equal n, j and different I, such that the level with the highest I has slightly lower energy

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