For propositional calculus, I have a HW assignment out of the textbook Applied Discrete Structures by Alan Doerr and Kenneth Levasseur. I'm having a hard time figuring out how to get the direct and indirect proofs for the following problems:

If I could even just an example of (a), I might be able to figure out the other two problems. I understand to begin with a premise for a direct proof but I'm not sure which premise to start off with.

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