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Incidence of Exposed (l) Incidence of Not Exposed (INe Incidence new cases of disease in people at risk Prevalence existing cases of disease Exposure risk factor or independent variable Outcome disease or mortality or dependent variable L a+b c+ d Relative Risk (RR) - risk of outcome in exposed compared to risk of outcome in not exposed (not exposed Risk of 1.0) Relative RiskE/INE Compute the Relative Risk (4 points) 10,000 adults were enrolled in a 10-yr cohort study. At the start, half ate red meat (exposed). The other half did not eat red meat (not exposed). None had colon cancer. of those who ate red meat, 1600 developed colon cancer. Of those who did not eat red meat, 150 developed colon cancer. What is the risk that those who ate red meat will develop colon cancer compared with the risk that those who did not eat red meat will develop colon cancer? | Outcome + Has colon cancer Does not have Marginal Sunm Outcome- colon cancer Exposed (Eats red meat) Not Exposed (Does not eat red meat) Marginal Sum 1. Correct table (l point) 2. What is the RR? (Show your work here and round to 3 decimal points) (1 point) 3. Using the language in your book (page 120), interpret the results (1 point) 4. Is the risk protective or hazardous? (1 point) Grand Total
Person-Years at Risk and Incidence Density Person-Years at Risk sum of the amount of time a participant is at risk for the outcome in a study (# persons x at risk for 1 year + # persons x at risk for 2 years + # persons x at risk for 3 years, etc.) Incidence Density (ID)- new cases of disease or mortality in persons at risk/person-time at risk. Incidence Density in Not Exposed (IDNE) Persomtime at risk Incidence Density in Person-time at risk Exposed (ID Incidence Density Ratio (IDR- also called Relative Risk)- IDt/IDNE Compute the IDR and RR (6 points) This is an 8-year cohort study to determine the risk of smoking on developing throat cancer. Some of the cohort is a past or current smoker. Others are never smokers. None has throat cancer at the beginning of the study; some develop it during the study. Compute the person-years at risk, incidence density for the exposed and unexposed groups, and the incidence density ratio. Then, interpret the findings. Steps. Compute the Person-Years of smoking exposure using the table below. (Hint: add the years at risk of throat cancer (TC)-see examples). Once they develop TC they are no longer at risk and their years in the study cant be counted. .Add each persons years of exposure in the right column and enter the value in the box next to .Then count the P-Y at risk for the Current/Former Smokers (exposed) and the P-Y at risk for the . Using the Person-Years for each exposure group as the denominator and the number of TC Total P-Y at Risk of Throat Cancer Never-Smokers (not exposed) recorded for each exposure group; compute the Incidence Density for TC risk in current/former smokers (exposed) (ID) & compute the incidence density for TC risk in never smokers (not exposed) (IDN). The compute the Incidence Density Ratio (also call RR), divide the IDi by the IDNE. This value is interpreted the same as the Relative Risk
Years in the Study at Risk of Developing Throat Cancer Years at Risk Person Smoker 1 6 Yes at risk at risk TC No longer at risk of throat cancer atrisk atrisk atrisk-atriskTat riskTatrisk Tatriskt_8 No atrisk No Yes Yes TO TC No No Yes Yes TC TC TC TC Total P-Y at Risk of Throat Cancer 5. Correct table (1 point) 6. Sum the Person-Years of Exposure for cach exposure group? (1 point) Former/Current Smoker (1/2 point) Never Smoker(1/2 point) 7. How many of the exposed & not exposed participants developed throat cancer (1 point)? Former/Current Smoker (1/2 point): Never Smoker(i/2 point): 8. What is the Incidence Density for the exposed (ID) and non-exposed (IDNe) groups? (1 point) Former/Current Smoker (1/2 point): Never Smoker (1/2 point): 2 9. Compute the Incidence Density Ratio (IDR). Is the IDR protective or hazardous? (1 point). 10. Using the interpretation for Relative Risk on page 120 of your text, interpret the meaning of the Incidence Density Ratio (1 pt)
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