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Engineering · Electrical Engineering
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Q2 a) Distinguish between dynamic power consumption and short circuit power consumption in a switching CMOS inverter (5 marks) Q2 b) Figure Q2b shows a CMOS inverter driving a load capacitor, CLoad Derive an expression for its dynamic power consumption and briefly discuss the expression Hence calculate a value for the dynamic power dissipation at the frequency 50 MHz, if the power supply voltage is VDD 2.5 V and the output load capacitance is CLoad- 1 pF [Hint: Vin abruptly rises and falls] (12 marks) in Dp out Dn Fig. Q2b a CMOS inverter used in the dynamic power-dissipation analysis Q2 c) List the sources of dynamic power dissipation in CMOS technology and discuss ways by which it can be reduced (8 marks) Q2 d) Why is copper (Cu) metallization required in ULSI interconnection networks? What drawbacks does the use of Cu have as an alternative to Al in ULS circuits? Describe two techniques for the fabrication of multilevel Cu interconnects If Al is replaced with Cu wire and a low-k dielectric (k 2.6) insulation layer is used instead of a SiO2 (k-3.9) layer, what percentage reduction in the RC time constant will be achieved? The resistivity of Al is 2.7 u2.cm, and the resistivity of Cu (9 marks) is 1.7 μΩ.cm.

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