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Engineering · Civil Engineering
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Use the a) Hazen-Williams equation, b) Manning equation, and c) the Darcy-Weisbach equation to calculate the flow rate in a smooth concrete pipe that carries water (20°C) between reservoirs A and B (see figure). The 4.5m diameter pipeline is 5.5km long. There is a 60m difference in the two water surface elevations. Compare the results and discuss the differences. Assume that minor losses are negligible.

NOTE:
the answers should be
a) Q = 178 m^3/s
b) Q = 163 m^3/s
c) Q = 156 m^3/s

Res. A 2 Res. B
TABLE 3.2 Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C, for Different Types of Pipes HW Pipe Materials Brass Cast iron (common in older water lines) CHW 130-140 New, unlined 10-year-old 20-year-old 30-year-old 40-year-old 130 107-113 89-100 75-90 64-83 Concrete or concrete lined 140 120 100 130-140 140 140 150 130-150 150 Smooth Average Rough Copper Ductile iron (cement mortar lined) Glass High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Plastic Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Steel Commercial Riveted Welded (seamless) 140-150 90-110 100 110 Vitrified clay
LE 3.3 Mannings Roughness Coefficient, n, for Pipe Flows TAB Manningsn Min ax 0.009 0.011 0.011 0.017 0.011 0.011 0.009 0.020 0.011 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.010 0.017 0.010 0.012 0.013 0.015 0.015 Brass Cast iron Cement mortar surfaces Cement rubble surfaces Clay drainage tile Concrete, precast Copper Corrugated metal (CMP) Ductile iron (cement mortar lined) Glass 0.017 0.015 0.013 0.024 0.013 0.013 0.011 0.011 0.012 0.020 0.017 0.017 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Steel, commercial Steel, riveted Vitrified sewer pipe Wrought iron
TABLE 3.1 Roughness Heights, e, for Certain Common Pipe Materials Pipe Material e (mm) e (ft) Brass Concrete 0.0015 0.000005 Steel forms, smooth Good joints, average Rough, visible form marks 0.18 0.36 0.60 0.0015 0.0006 0.0012 0.002 0.000005 0.15 Copper Corrugated metal (CMP) Iron (common in older water lines, except ductile or DIP, which is widely used today) 45 Asphalt lined Cast Ductile; DIP-cement mortar lined Galvanized Wrought 0.12 0.26 0.12 0.15 0.045 0.0015 0.0015 0.0004 0.00085 0.0004 0.0005 0.00015 0.000005 0.000005 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polyethylene, high density (HDPE) Steel Enamel coated Riveted Seamless Commercial 0.0048 0.9 9.0 0.004 0.045 0.000016 0.003-0.03 0.000013 0.00015
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