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Engineering · Civil Engineering
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You need to consider the feasibility of using a bypass line to reduce the flow of water being treated for water softening (hardness removal). The water coming in has a hardness of 250 mg/l, and the total flow is 15 MGD. Since the softening process is based upon equilibrium, the treated water always leaves with 25 mg/l of hardness - higher effluent criteria is not feasible using this chemical process based upon equilibrium. However, a hardness of 90 mg/l is more than low enough to meet all treatment needs. The target outflow concentration is set at 90 mg/l, the flow will need to be treated (Y) and bypassed (X).

Questions

1. How much of the flow (%) can bypass the treatment unit, thus reducing cost, while meeting the effluent criteria?

Assume a steady-state flow, no leakage in the system, and negligible changes in temperature and pressure throughout the process.

Assume a steady-state flow, no leakage in the system, and negligible changes in temperature and pressure throughout the process. Bypass flow softened water flow X MGD water source hardness 90 mg/l hardness 250 mg/l flow Y MGD Treated hardness 25 mg/l flow Y MGD Water softener

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